easy – aws keypair

Create a new keypair for use with AWS EC2 instances.
HINT: its a good idea to name your keys with a region, as keypairs are region specific.

aws ec2 create-key-pair --key-name=$KEY --region $REGION --query="KeyMaterial" --output=text > ~/.ssh/$KEY.pem
#readonly the key
chmod 400 ~/.ssh/$KEY.pem

Ready for use.

Must have awscli installed.


Enable IIS in Windows 10 with Powershell

SOMETIMES you need a local web server on your Windows 10 desktop.

To configure IIS on Windows 10 (or Windows 8), use these powershell commands to help get you started.

To enable (turn on) IIS

Enable-WindowsOptionalFeature –online –featurename IIS-WebServerRole

To find out if IIS is running

Get-Service W3SVC

To restart IIS


Once you are done (testing maybe?), uninstall it.  No-one wants to have their desktop compromised due to a IIS bug. 🙂

Disable-WindowsOptionalFeature –online –featurename IIS-WebServerRole

Here is a powershell script that will download, setup and enable IIS.

#download file function
function Download-File
 param (

Write-Host "Downloading $url to $saveAs"
 $downloader = new-object System.Net.WebClient
 $downloader.DownloadFile($url, $saveAs)

#download Windows Remote Server Admin Tool (allows Server Manager Module)
$SaveAsFileName = "C:\temp\WindowsTH-RSAT_WS2016-x64.msu"
$File1DownloadPath = "https://download.microsoft.com/download/1/D/8/1D8B5022-5477-4B9A-8104-6A71FF9D98AB/WindowsTH-RSAT_WS2016-x64.msu"
Download-File $File1DownloadPath $SaveAsFileName
# install RSAT
msiexec /i C:\temp\WindowsTH-RSAT_WS2016-x64.msu
# install IIS
Enable-WindowsOptionalFeature –online –featurename IIS-WebServerRole
# check it is running
Get-Service W3SVC

Hope this helps.




Snippets I’ve used or collected.

Configure awscli

Enter keys, region and output defaults.

$ aws configure
AWS Access Key ID [****************FEBA]:
AWS Secret Access Key [****************I4b/]:
Default region name [ap-southeast-2]:
Default output format [json]:

Add bash completion via Tab key

echo "complete -C aws_completer aws" >> ~/.bash_profile
source ~/.bash_profile

Other shell completion options

Supecharged AWSCLI SAWS or AWS-shell

Both offer improvements over the standard bash completions above.

S3 Accelerate Transfer
if you need to sync a large number of small files to S3, the increasing the following values added to your ~/.aws/config config file will speed up the sync process. (also need to enable accelerate transfer on bucket – see next command)

Modify .aws/config

[profile default]
s3 =
  max_concurrent_requests = 100
  max_queue_size = 10000
  use_accelerate_endpoint = true

Enable S3 bucket for Accelerate Transfer

The following example sets Status=Enabled to enable Transfer Acceleration on a bucket. You use Status=Suspended to suspend Transfer Acceleration.  This incurs an additional cost, so should be disable about the bulk upload is completed.

 $ aws s3api put-bucket-accelerate-configuration --bucket bucketname --accelerate-configuration Status=Enabled

Set default output type (choose 1)



echo "Waiting for EBS snapshot"
aws ec2 wait snapshot-completed --snapshot-ids snap-aabbccdd
echo "EBS snapshot completed"

Get the public IPs or DNS of EC2 instances

Uses jq for filtering output.

apt-get install jq
aws ec2 ls --ec2-tag-value mystack-inst* | jq --raw-output ".Reservations [].Instances [].PublicIpAddress

AWS Tags – jq improvements

With jq, AWSCLI json output can be hard to query can but you can map it into a normal object like this:

jq '<path to Tags> | map({"key": .Key, "value": .Value}) | from_entries'

Find untag EC2 instance. 

This cmd finds instance NOT tagged ‘owner’.

aws ec2 describe-instances   –output text    –query ‘Reservations[].Instances[?!not_null(Tags[?Key == `owner`].Value)] | [].[InstanceId]’
Create a tag for EC2 instance

 NB. Add a for loop to tag all instances

aws ec2 create-tags –resources $i –tags Key=owner,Value=me

cloud9 IDE http://c9.io

If you need a Lnux Virtual Desktop for developers, then check out http://c9.io

Within 5 minutes, I had registered, logged in, view the sample code, deployed it and an Apache web server and run the code. Super Easy!!

Some of the constraints of other solutions may be;

* constraints
VMWare View 6 (v1.0 linux desktops)
Hardware purchases
Building and Managing infrastructure
Short cycle project work

Easy way to rotate AWS access keys

We all know we should change passwords often, well same goes for access keys.

This handy INTERACTIVE bash script walks you through to create a new AWS Access Key, save the .pem file in your .ssh directory.  And gives you the option to delete the old keys.

You can download from my gitlab – here

Hope this helps someone 🙂

# @shallawell
# Program Name: aws-iam-access-keys.sh
# Purpose: Manage AWS access keys
# version 0.1

# new key content will be created in this file.
#remove the old file first
rm $FILE
### create a key
echo -n "Do you want to create a new Access/Secret key. (y/n) [ENTER]: "
#get user input
read response2
if [ "$response2" == "y" ]; then
echo "Ok.. Creating a new keys !!!"
aws iam create-access-key --output json | grep Access | tail -2 | tee -a $FILE
#Alternative create key command
#aws ec2 create-key-pair --key-name=$KEY --region $REGION --query="KeyMaterial" --output=text > ~/.ssh/$KEY.pem
#readonly the key
#chmod 400 ~/.ssh/$KEY.pem
echo "key created."
echo "REMEMBER: You should rotate keys at least once a year! Max of 2 keys per user."
echo "$FILE created for Access and Secret Keys"
echo "HINT: Run aws configure to update keys. (you just rotated your keys!)"
else [ "$response2" == "n" ]
echo "Not creating keys."
exit 0

### list a key, save to DELKEY var
#this command LISTS the access keys for current user, sorts by CreateDate,
#gets the latest AccessKeyId result. awk grabs the Access key (excludes date field)
DELKEY=$(aws iam list-access-keys \
--query 'AccessKeyMetadata[].[AccessKeyId,CreateDate]' \
| sort -r -k 2 | tail -1 | awk {'print $1'})

echo "list-Access-key sorted to find OLDEST key."
echo -n "Key Found : $DELKEY. Do you want to delete this key. (y/n) [ENTER]: "
#get user input
read response
if [ "$response" == "y" ]; then
echo "you said yes. Deleteing Key in 3 secs!!!"
sleep 3
echo "delete-access-key disabled, NO REAL DELETE OCCURRED"
### delete a key, uncomment to activate the delete function.
#aws iam delete-access-key --access-key-id $DELKEY
echo "deleted $DELKEY"
else [ "$response" == "n" ]
echo "you said no. Not Deleting"

echo "done."

GIT – setup a new private repo and pull,push code

This is suitable for GITLAB, but with a little modification would work with other GITs.

Install git on Ubuntu

apt-get install -y git

How to setup git

git config --global user.name "name"
git config --global user.email "email@example.com"
git remote add origin http://IP/path/to/repository

How to create new PRIVATE repo (for GITLAB)

This needs to be done via the GITLAB API.  Grab your Personal Token from GITLAB Account Settings and use this bash script.

Get it here https://gitlab.com/shallawell/git-init-remote-project.git

# @shallawell
# Program Name: git-init-remote-project.sh
# Version = 0.0.2
# if the remote repo does not exist, use this script before you attempt to
# git push
# Can create a simple Gitlab repo
# start ===============================
#set vars
#Public or Private repo, set to true for PUBLIC REPO

# test var
if [ $TOKEN == YOURTOKENHERE ]; then
 echo "Error : update the git TOKEN variable."
 exit 0

if [ ${#@} == 0 ]; then
 echo "Error : Repo name required."
 echo "Usage: $0 REPO_NAME"
 echo "You need to provider the repostiory/project name to create on the remote server."
 echo "Ensure $TOKEN has been set."
# main command
 curl -H "Content-Type:application/json" $REMOTE_GIT/api/v3/projects?private_token=$TOKEN -d \
 "{ \"name\": \"$REPO_NAME\", \"public\": $PUBLIC }"
# end ===============================

How to Pull, Checkout and Push

git pull <repo-link>
git checkout -b master
<make your code changes>
<make changes to .gitignore to exclude files>
git add .
git commit -m "updated the code to/for ..."
git show
git push origin master

Other GIT handy commands

git fetch <repo-name>       # get changes, rather than pull whole code base
git init                    # initialize new local dir
git status                  # print status
git remote get-url origin   # check the origin

Nice list of Aliases for .bashrc

$cat .bashrc
# .bashrc

# Source global definitions
if [ -f /etc/bashrc ]; then
 . /etc/bashrc

# Uncomment the following line if you don't like systemctl's auto-paging feature:

# User specific aliases and functions
alias cp='cp -iv' # Preferred 'cp' implementation
alias mv='mv -iv' # Preferred 'mv' implementation
alias mkdir='mkdir -pv' # Preferred 'mkdir' implementation
alias ll='ls -FGlAhp' # Preferred 'ls' implementation
alias la='ll -FGlAhpa' # Preferred 'ls -a' implementation
alias less='less -FSRXc' # Preferred 'less' implementation
cd() { builtin cd "$@"; ll; } # Always list directory contents upon 'cd'
alias cd..='cd ../' # Go back 1 directory level (for fast typers)
alias ..='cd ../' # Go back 1 directory level
alias ...='cd ../../' # Go back 2 directory levels
alias .3='cd ../../../' # Go back 3 directory levels
alias .4='cd ../../../../' # Go back 4 directory levels
alias .5='cd ../../../../../' # Go back 5 directory levels
alias .6='cd ../../../../../../' # Go back 6 directory levels
alias findall='find / -name' # find on the whole filesystem
alias sudo="sudo " # A trailing space in value causes the next word to be checked for alias substitution when the alias is expanded

# lr: Full Recursive Directory Listing
# ------------------------------------------
alias lr='ls -R | grep ":$" | sed -e '\''s/:$//'\'' -e '\''s/[^-][^\/]*\//--/g'\'' -e '\''s/^/ /'\'' -e '\''s/-/|/'\'' | less'

# showa: to remind yourself of an alias (given some part of it)
# ------------------------------------------------------------
 showa () { /usr/bin/grep --color=always -i -a1 $@ ~/Library/init/bash/aliases.bash | grep -v '^\s*$' | less -FSRXc ; }

alias mypubip='curl -s ipinfo.io/ip' # mypubip: Public facing IP Address

alias openPorts='ss -t -a -l' # openPorts: List Listening TCP ports

# ii: display useful host related informaton
# -------------------------------------------------------------------
 ii() {
 echo -e "\nYou are logged on ${RED}$HOST"
 echo -e "\nAdditionnal information:$NC " ; uname -a
 echo -e "\n${RED}Users logged on:$NC " ; w -h
 echo -e "\n${RED}Current date :$NC " ; date
 echo -e "\n${RED}Machine stats :$NC " ; uptime
 echo -e "\n${RED}Public facing IP Address :$NC " ;mypubip

# httpDebug: Download a web page and show info on what took time
# -------------------------------------------------------------------
 httpDebug () { /usr/bin/curl $@ -o /dev/null -w "dns: %{time_namelookup} connect: %{time_connect} pretransfer: %{time_pretransfer} starttransfer: %{time_starttransfer} total: %{time_total}\n" ; }

Free SSL – Secure your website


Get a free SSL Certificate for use with your sites.

These notes are pretty rough and really a reference for me.

I am using a Bitnami Joomla stack and hence I edit bitnami.conf (instead of httpd.conf)

###letsencypt install
## Main point is DNS MUST resolve to right IP
## Cannot put wiki.name.com and http://www.name.com on same certificate as they are on different IPs.
### Make sure nothing is listening on Port 80 as we start our own web-server.
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get -y install git
sudo git clone https://github.com/letsencrypt/letsencrypt /opt/letsencrypt
./letsencrypt-auto certonly -a standalone -w /opt/bitnami/apache2/htdocs/ -d yourdomain.com -d http://www.yourdomain.com

sudo crontab -e
#Add this to crontab for auto renewal
30 2 * * 1 /opt/letsencrypt/letsencrypt-auto renew >> /var/log/le-renew.log
#Update SSL Cert in Apache (httpd.conf/bitnami.conf)
# remove old and add these
SSLCertificateFile “/etc/letsencrypt/live/yourdomain.com/cert.pem”
SSLCertificateKeyFile “/etc/letsencrypt/live/yourdomain.com/privkey.pem”
SSLCertificateChainFile “/etc/letsencrypt/live/yourdomain.com/fullchain.pem”

Force SSL in Apache
From here > https://wiki.bitnami.com/Components/Apache#How_to_force_HTTPS_redirection_for_my_application.3f
# Add these to Apache (httpd.conf/bitnami.conf)
#<VirtualHost *:80>
RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !=on
RewriteRule ^/(.*) https://%{SERVER_NAME}/$1 [R,L]